Kazakhstan Welcomes Women Back From The Islamic State, Warily

Posted on Sep 1, 2020 | Connect with Nancy Smith on Google

If a participant decides to save a hundred% of her incentive after every session, she will have saved a total of US$360 and would receive a matching US$360 for a total of US$720. Due to lack of documentation, lingering mistrust of the banking system, or different obstacles, some women could elect to never open a bank account. These members have the choice to retailer money with the program employees in a casual account until the time of withdrawal, and these informal accounts are also matched in a separate, project-controlled account underneath the participant’s name.

Type Of Kazakhstan Visas

Participants who test optimistic for any STI are provided with referrals and treatment. Treatment for HCV isn’t extensively obtainable in Kazakhstan, and medical coordinators refer participants who take a look at positive for HCV to specialised clinics for extra examination, monitoring, and therapy. If members obtain kazakh bride a positive rapid test for HIV, the clinical coordinator refers them to the native AIDS center for confirmatory testing and therapy. HIV-positive members signal an additional waiver allowing our study access to remedy records on the local HIV clinic.

Is The Food In Kazakhstan Safe?

We are the first study, to our data, to make use of organic testing to complement self-reported HIV and STI knowledge. Our stringent high quality management measures and using a computerized data assortment device guarantee standardization and consistency among participants. Ours is the first RCT conducted with FSW in Kazakhstan, and one of many few performed in Central Asia. Our use of a longitudinal examine design, assessing outcomes over a 12-month publish-intervention interval, allows for us to examine the long-lasting effects of our intervention and assess the sustainability of its outcomes. Our blended-strategies approach, which includes biological assessments, behavioral questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and cost knowledge, permits us to assess the impact of our intervention on a number of ranges.

From week three until the end of the intervention interval on the finish of month three, the therapy arm receives the matched financial savings component of the intervention. The matched financial savings component of the HIVRR+MF intervention can also be adapted from the Undarga program . Building assets previous to shifting sources of revenue or moving to new or self-employment might improve the chance for increased revenue from other sources than sex work. As mentioned above, members receive incentive payments (US$12/session) for every FLT or VT session attended.

Clinical coordinators gather information on confirmatory testing , viral-load test results, CD4 test outcomes, and antiretroviral treatment historical past at every assessment period for each participant. Follow-up assessments happen as early as 1 week before the exact comply with-up date, and as late as three weeks after the precise follow-up date. Like the baseline behavioral questionnaire, the comply with-up behavioral questionnaires address the principle end result variables, moderators and mediators of interest to the research. The comply with-up questionnaires additionally embody additional questions to assess how HIVRR+MF members have utilized the vocational training and monetary literacy training that they’ve received. Behavioral questionnaires are performed utilizing pc-assisted self-interviewing methods, with the identical survey device that the research assistants use to evaluate study eligibility and which may be completed in approximately 2 h.

What To See In Kazakhstan

Finally, given the long timeframe of our research and the staggered begin dates between the Temirtau and Almaty sites, we suspect that external confounding factors could affect participant enrollment and intervention outcomes. For instance, we have already observed a rapid contraction of Kazakhstan’s economic system and a currency devaluation in the summer of 2015, which can impact participants’ savings habits. Academic literature on microfinance for HIV-danger discount has called for a extra rigorous testing of interventions, examination of the causal pathways between microfinance and decreased threat-habits outcomes, and the usage of biomarkers . Our assessments provide much-wanted knowledge on the experiences, dangers and wishes of this inhabitants in Kazakhstan, the variables that reasonable and mediate HIV-risk outcomes, and the way these differ between therapy and control situations.

Cluster randomization methods might offset the results of choice bias, and analyses will compare baseline characteristics of each therapy and management arms. Our evaluation measures include delicate data on highly stigmatized behaviors, together with sexual conduct history and drug use.

Table1 contains an inventory of the precise measures used for every assemble. Among the process analysis measures included are intervention session attendance , vocational training attendance and matched financial savings deposits and spending , and retention measures. These course of measures are used for a number of reasons, including supervision, evaluation of standardization and constancy to the intervention, and for use in booster coaching occasions throughout the examine period. Eligible members are scheduled for examine consumption procedures and the baseline assessment on the project subject office location as quickly as potential after the screening. During this baseline go to, research assistants describe the small print of the examine to potential participants and lead them via an informed consent course of.

The qualitative component of our examine makes use of in-depth interviews to probe deeper into the barriers to savings and vocational entry experienced by FSW, as well as providing information on the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Finally, our study addresses many of the scientific limitations of previous research.

The HIVRR and FLT periods are led by trained research facilitators, supervised by examine staff and investigators. A number of quality assurance measures have been put into place to ensure standardization throughout classes and facilitators. Sessions are audio-recorded, and tapes are randomly selected for evaluation by local clinical supervisors and US-based examine investigators. Clinical supervisors notice adherence to the intervention protocol and tackle any areas of immediate concern directly with the facilitators. Team supervision is held once a month with US-primarily based study investigators via Skype calls to discuss the challenges faced by facilitators in conducting the periods and adhering to the protocol.

The use of CASI for baseline and comply with-up behavioral assessments ensures that every participant is receiving the identical version of the questionnaire, and that there isn’t a response bias. Each web site receives daily supervision from a web site coordinator, who’s liable for reviewing study information and reporting any irregularities or protocol violations to the examine team. Data administration employees on the examine group are liable for coordinating knowledge assortment throughout a number of databases. Weekly Skype conferences with research investigators are used to deal with any points or challenges.

During the FLT intervention, members receive assist to open a personal savings account in a partner bank, and are encouraged to deposit their session attendance incentives in this account. Participant’s funds will solely be matched as much as the whole amount that they’ve acquired from incentive funds for session attendance – this restrict ensures that girls are not earning earnings via intercourse work for his or her matched financial savings.

As we’ve described above, the precise goal population of our intervention has been largely absent in past HIV-risk-discount interventions. While combination HIVRR and microfinance interventions have been proven to cut back HIV danger and empower women to guard themselves, these studies hardly ever give attention to women who use or inject medication. Both our intervention and our assessments are tailor-made to the needs and realities of girls who share the dual risks of sex work and drug use.

Central Asia Media Join Forces

HIVRR intervention periods fastidiously included core components of the intersection of drug use and sexual risk, and danger-discount methods with paying companions. A Data Safety and Monitoring Board , consisting of Kazakhstan-based researchers, has been identified and meets on an annual foundation to evaluate all ongoing research information and human subjects issues. Standardized protocols and trainings are used to guarantee consistency and fidelity to the intervention and assessments throughout a number of research sites. Research assistants, scientific coordinators, and facilitators obtain standard coaching in their areas of responsibility, including procedural manuals and checklists.